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水一方皮划艇教学:怎样让你拥有一个更健康的肩膀来划船

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水一方皮划艇教学:怎样让你拥有一个更健康的肩膀来划船  

As a kayaker I am sure you have either experienced or know someone who has experienced ashoulder injury. 作为划艇爱好者,我想大家都或多或少体验或知道有谁因为划船伤了肩膀。It could be high brace that leads to a shoulder disloCATion, hitting a rock that separates your AC joint, or overuse giving you tendinitis.这种情况可能是因为一个错误的高位支撑(手肘肩膀全部打开)造成了脱臼,可能是因为在水里面撞到石头导致你的胸锁骨关节分离(肩膀和锁骨相连结的地方),或者过度使用造成肌腱炎。The shoulder takes a beating when you are in your kayak.当你在划艇的时候,肩膀无时无刻都在保持受力。


Let’s start with the anatomy of the shoulder.我们先从肩膀的解剖原理讲起。The shoulder, or glenohumeral joint, is a ball and socket joint made up of 3 bones (scapula, humerus, and clavicle).肩膀或盂肱关节(医学叫法),是一个球窝关节由3个骨头组成(肩胛骨,肱骨和锁骨)。It is one of the most free moving joints in the body which also makes it susceptible to injury.它是人体可以活动的关节中最容易受到损伤的关节之一。Surrounding the shoulder joint is a labrum, a fibrocartilaginous rim that helps secure the humerus into the socket, numerous muscles/tendons (the rotator cuff), ligaments, and connective tissue.围绕肩关节是盂唇(它是一个软骨边缘结构,有助于固定肱骨链接),还有众多的肌肉/肌腱(肩袖),韧带和结缔组织。The rotator cuff is 4 different muscles that help stabilize the shoulder during movement. 肩袖肌群是由4个不同的肌肉组成,帮助运动过程中稳定肩膀。



COMMON SHOULDER INJURIES: 常见的肩伤:

My favorite kind of patient to work with are non surgical shoulders.我喜欢治疗的肩伤是那些不需要做手术的肩伤。That means you’ve got some pain, but it isn’t enough to warrant surgery.这意味着你当时受到了一些痛苦,但还不至于严重到做手术。These injuries include tendinitis or bursitis (inflammation of the tendon or bursa) and sprains/strains of the labrum, rotator cuff, or ligaments.这些伤害包括肌腱炎或滑囊炎(肌腱或滑囊炎症)和盂唇、肩袖或韧带的拉伤扭伤。Some of these non surgical injuries are related to shoulder impingement.这些不需要手术的伤害都与肩部撞击有关。Impingement usually means the humerus is sitting up and forward in the socket so it irritates all those shoulder structures.这种撞击通常是指肱骨受力离开了本来的位置,肩部结构发生了损伤。

The unfortunate shoulder injuries involve surgery. Surgical injuries may include labral tears, rotator cuff tears, or bicep tears.还有一些肩伤很不幸,需要手术。这些伤害可能包括盂唇、肩袖或二头肌撕裂。



CAUSES, TREATMENT, AND PREVENTION: 成因,治疗和预防:

Sometimes shit happens and no matter how hard you’ve tried you still injure your shoulder.有时候这些破事就这样发生了,无论你怎么努力去避免伤害,但是你的肩膀任然受伤。However, there are some steps you can take to help keep your shoulder healthy.不过,还是有一些办法可以用来来保持你肩膀健康的。



First is flexibility.首先是灵活性。Kayaking in such a forward movement, that our shoulders start rolling forward. 划是一个向前的运动,作用我们的肩膀上就是一个向前转动的动作。We get tightness in our pects and the muscles of the posterior capsule.我们可以让后囊的肌肉更加结实。Tightness in the shoulder can hold the humerus in an elevated position creating impingement type symptoms.结实的后囊肌肉可以让肱骨能够达到更高的极限却不脱出。My two favorite stretches are a doorway or a ½ foam roll stretch and the sleeper stretch.我最喜欢的两个锻炼方式是用门框锻炼和躺在地垫上侧卧拉伸。


Doorway stretch门框锻炼
Stand in a doorway and brace your forearms against its sides.站在门框下面让你的前臂对着它的两边。Make sure you have both of your arms at a right angle–your body should look like a football goal post.确保你的两个肩膀有正确的角度,你的两个手臂应该看起来像一个足球门柱。 Place one foot in front of you and one in back.一只脚向前,一只脚向后。Keeping your upper arms at shoulder level, tense your stomach and straighten your back.保持你的上臂与肩水平、绷紧你的胃部、伸直背部。Lean your upper body forward until you feel a stretch inside the chest.身体向前倾,直到你觉得胸腔非常舒展。Hold for 30-60 seconds and repeat 3-5 times.保持30-60秒,重复3-5次。



Sleeper Stretch侧卧拉伸
Lie directly on affected shoulder with head well supported by pillows.侧卧躺在枕头上,要拉伸的肩膀在下面。Slide your arm up to 90 (level with collar bone) and bend your elbow to 90. 滑动你的手臂到90度位置(和锁骨水平)然后把手肘弯曲到90度。Place the hand of the unaffected side just below wrist of affected side and slowly push the forearm down towards the bed/ floor.如果你有疼痛的肩膀的前面用另外一只手抓住这个手的手腕,然后慢慢将前臂向下推往地垫。Hold 30-60 seconds and repeat 3-5 times.保持30-60秒,重复3-5次。Stop if you have pain in the front of the shoulder.如果肩膀感到疼痛的话就停止。

水一方皮划艇教学:怎样让你拥有一个更健康的肩膀来划船  
作者:Jessica Yurtinus(JACKSON皮划艇队物理治疗师)

翻译:袁晓锦(因为划船脱臼两次的家伙)




As a kayaker I am sure you have either experienced or know someone who has experienced ashoulder injury. 作为皮划艇爱好者,我想大家都或多或少体验或知道有谁因为划船伤了肩膀。It could be high brace that leads to a shoulder disloCATion, hitting a rock that separates your AC joint, or overuse giving you tendinitis.这种情况可能是因为一个错误的高位支撑(手肘肩膀全部打开)造成了脱臼,可能是因为在水里面撞到石头导致你的胸锁骨关节分离(肩膀和锁骨相连结的地方),或者过度使用造成肌腱炎。The shoulder takes a beating when you are in your kayak.当你在划艇的时候,肩膀无时无刻都在保持受力。


Let’s start with the anatomy of the shoulder.我们先从肩膀的解剖原理讲起。The shoulder, or glenohumeral joint, is a ball and socket joint made up of 3 bones (scapula, humerus, and clavicle).肩膀或盂肱关节(医学叫法),是一个球窝关节由3个骨头组成(肩胛骨,肱骨和锁骨)。It is one of the most free moving joints in the body which also makes it susceptible to injury.它是人体可以活动的关节中最容易受到损伤的关节之一。Surrounding the shoulder joint is a labrum, a fibrocartilaginous rim that helps secure the humerus into the socket, numerous muscles/tendons (the rotator cuff), ligaments, and connective tissue.围绕肩关节是盂唇(它是一个软骨边缘结构,有助于固定肱骨链接),还有众多的肌肉/肌腱(肩袖),韧带和结缔组织。The rotator cuff is 4 different muscles that help stabilize the shoulder during movement. 肩袖肌群是由4个不同的肌肉组成,帮助运动过程中稳定肩膀。



COMMON SHOULDER INJURIES: 常见的肩伤:

My favorite kind of patient to work with are non surgical shoulders.我喜欢治疗的肩伤是那些不需要做手术的肩伤。That means you’ve got some pain, but it isn’t enough to warrant surgery.这意味着你当时受到了一些痛苦,但还不至于严重到做手术。These injuries include tendinitis or bursitis (inflammation of the tendon or bursa) and sprains/strains of the labrum, rotator cuff, or ligaments.这些伤害包括肌腱炎或滑囊炎(肌腱或滑囊炎症)和盂唇、肩袖或韧带的拉伤扭伤。Some of these non surgical injuries are related to shoulder impingement.这些不需要手术的伤害都与肩部撞击有关。Impingement usually means the humerus is sitting up and forward in the socket so it irritates all those shoulder structures.这种撞击通常是指肱骨受力离开了本来的位置,肩部结构发生了损伤。

The unfortunate shoulder injuries involve surgery. Surgical injuries may include labral tears, rotator cuff tears, or bicep tears.还有一些肩伤很不幸,需要手术。这些伤害可能包括盂唇、肩袖或二头肌撕裂。



CAUSES, TREATMENT, AND PREVENTION: 成因,治疗和预防:

Sometimes shit happens and no matter how hard you’ve tried you still injure your shoulder.有时候这些破事就这样发生了,无论你怎么努力去避免伤害,但是你的肩膀任然受伤。However, there are some steps you can take to help keep your shoulder healthy.不过,还是有一些办法可以用来来保持你肩膀健康的。



First is flexibility.首先是灵活性。Kayaking in such a forward movement, that our shoulders start rolling forward. 划桨是一个向前的运动,作用我们的肩膀上就是一个向前转动的动作。We get tightness in our pects and the muscles of the posterior capsule.我们可以让后囊的肌肉更加结实。Tightness in the shoulder can hold the humerus in an elevated position creating impingement type symptoms.结实的后囊肌肉可以让肱骨能够达到更高的极限却不脱出。My two favorite stretches are a doorway or a ½ foam roll stretch and the sleeper stretch.我最喜欢的两个锻炼方式是用门框锻炼和躺在地垫上侧卧拉伸。


Doorway stretch门框锻炼
Stand in a doorway and brace your forearms against its sides.站在门框下面让你的前臂对着它的两边。Make sure you have both of your arms at a right angle–your body should look like a football goal post.确保你的两个肩膀有正确的角度,你的两个手臂应该看起来像一个足球门柱。 Place one foot in front of you and one in back.一只脚向前,一只脚向后。Keeping your upper arms at shoulder level, tense your stomach and straighten your back.保持你的上臂与肩水平、绷紧你的胃部、伸直背部。Lean your upper body forward until you feel a stretch inside the chest.身体向前倾,直到你觉得胸腔非常舒展。Hold for 30-60 seconds and repeat 3-5 times.保持30-60秒,重复3-5次。



Sleeper Stretch侧卧拉伸
Lie directly on affected shoulder with head well supported by pillows.侧卧躺在枕头上,要拉伸的肩膀在下面。Slide your arm up to 90 (level with collar bone) and bend your elbow to 90. 滑动你的手臂到90度位置(和锁骨水平)然后把手肘弯曲到90度。Place the hand of the unaffected side just below wrist of affected side and slowly push the forearm down towards the bed/ floor.如果你有疼痛的肩膀的前面用另外一只手抓住这个手的手腕,然后慢慢将前臂向下推往地垫。Hold 30-60 seconds and repeat 3-5 times.保持30-60秒,重复3-5次。Stop if you have pain in the front of the shoulder.如果肩膀感到疼痛的话就停止。



Next is stability.接下来是稳定性。Shoulder stability exercises strengthen the rotator cuff, lower and mid trapezius, rhomboids, and post deltoid. 肩关节稳定性的练习包括加强肩袖、低、中斜方肌、菱形肌和后三角肌。Stability will help control the powerful movements required in kayaking.稳定对于划艇时的控制高强度动作有帮助。Here are some exercises to incorporate in your workouts to help stabilize the shoulder. You may need some exercise bands or small weights for these exercises。下面的一些练习对帮助稳定肩膀非常有帮助。您可能需要一些锻炼工具和小重量的哑铃来进行这些练习。


Shoulder External/Internal Rotation with Resistance Bands使用弹力绳进行肩部外部/内部旋转
Secure one end of a resistance band to an object at the level of your chest.把弹力绳的一端固定到一个有你胸腔高的物体上。Grasp the other end of the resistance band with one hand. 用你手握住弹力绳的另外一端。Position your arm straight out to the side and bend your elbow 90 degrees so that your forearm points at the object securing the band.上臂打直,手肘弯曲九十度
。Step to the side to create resistance in the band. Without moving your upper arm, pull the band away from the object until your lower arm points in the other direction保持上身和上臂不动,然后向外拉扯弹力绳. Return your upper arm to its original position.然后回到你的上臂到原来的位置。Repeat 3 sets of 10-15 repetition。重复3组每组10-15次。

水一方皮划艇教学:怎样让你拥有一个更健康的肩膀来划船  
Shoulder Flexion/Scaption直臂前上举

Stand with your arms by your sides.手臂放在身体两侧站立。Stand on one end of the band.背对并手握弹力绳。Keep your elbows straight as you raise your arms up slowly and with control, maintaining tension in the band.保持你的胳膊肘伸直, 慢慢地、保持控制抬起双臂,保持弹力绳的紧张力。Lower your arm down to complete one repetition.放下你的手臂下,完成一次。Repeat 3 sets of 10-15 repetitions 重复3组,每组10-15次。Repeat for scaption with your arms at 45 degrees.



Prone Horizontal Abduction俯卧水平举哑铃

Lie with your arm hanging over the edge of a table or exercise ball with your palms facing down.爬在健身球上,拿起哑铃,手掌朝下。Raise arms out to the side, parallel to the floor. 然后举起哑铃,让肩膀平行于地面。Repeat 3 sets of 10-15 repetitions. 重复3组,每组10-15次。

水一方皮划艇教学:怎样让你拥有一个更健康的肩膀来划船  
Keep in mind these exercises are for a healthy shoulder.请记住这些锻炼是针对健康肩膀的。They are just a couple of my favorite general stretches and strengthening exercises that I use after over 10 years of experience as a sports physical therapist.它们是我最喜欢的伸展和锻炼方式,我作为体育物理治疗师,用这种方式锻炼已经超过10年。If you experience pain or discomfort, there is no substitute for seeing a physician or sports physical therapist.如果在练习途中感到疼痛或不适,那你最好还是去见医生或运动物理治疗师。Good luck and keep those shoulders healthy!!!祝你好运,让那些肩部保持健康!




“The writer of this article is a licensed physical therapist, however information contained heREIn has been collected from Sources believed to be reliable, and every precaution has been taken to ensure its accuracy. The information provided here is for general informational purposes only, and should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care.” “这篇文章的作者是一个有执照的物理治疗师,此处提供的信息仅供一般参考之用,不应被用作取代专业的医疗服务。





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水一方皮划艇 发布于 2015-02-10

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